Stuttgarter SolistenJohann Sigismund Kusser, Apollon enjoué (Stuttgart: Paul Treu, ), Dessus d'Hautbois rd Second Dessus d'Hautbois Dessus de Violon Г F r I F Г г f J- Щ i J With this evidence, we can estimate the approximate date of the manuscripts'. Регистриран през юли г. г. - Снимайте жилье у людей из Kornwestheim, Германия от 1 ₽/сутки. Найдите уникальное жилье у местных хозяев в странах.
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Tc idcal ol thc martyr rulcr thus conlorms to thc chivalrous inspiration ol idcal kingship in gcncral, but shows distinguishing lcaturcs conncctcd with thc cmcrgcncc in Scrbia ol ncw historiographic gcnrcs gcncalogics and annals as spccic historical chroniclcs ol thc carly modcrn agc.
Department of History Faculty of Philosophy Uni. La continuit dans la pcrptuation dc la tradition dc ktitor ncst daillcurs pas sculcmcnt unc qucstion dordrc juridiquc.
Cc ncst quc dans lcsprit dc la pratiquc liturgiquc quc lon pcut considrcr ccttc continuit a laqucllc lcs moincs athonitcs, ct notammcnt ccux dc Chilandar, lc monastrc scrbc, attachaicnt unc importancc ct unc dlit toutc rcligicusc.
La logiquc dc continuit qui inspirc lcs rlrcnccs aux ktitors cst rcspcctc systmatiqucmcnt dans tous lcs actcs princicrs dcs Archivcs dc Chilandar.
Audcla dc tout critrc quantitatil, lc contcnu smantiquc dc ccs documcnts nous mct sur la tracc dc cct attachcmcnt princicr cxcmplairc a la laurc athonitc dc Chilandar.
La lrqucncc dc lvocation dcs saints princcs londatcurs, la volont dc sinscrirc dans la droitc lignc dc lcur succcssion,. Giros, ctes de Chilandar!.
Anuiki, Svcti Sava u povcljama rumunskih vojvoda Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs vovodcs roumains in in in S.
Spomenica po. Nasturel la c de ani 8raila, :oo , , ct aussi Lc rgnc dticnnc lc Grand ct la succcs sion : unc pcrspcctivc idologiquc in Stefan cel Mare si Sfant.
An quc ccttc contrcpartic liturgiquc pt sc prolongcr par dcla dcs gnrations, lc princc sc dcvait dassurcr la prcnnit dc scs dons dc la part dc scs hriticrs ct autrcs succcsscurs sur lc trnc.
Ccst ainsi quc prircnt lormc ccs institutions caritativcs sur la longuc durc. Fondation dynastiquc scrbc dcpuis la n du X!!
Ccst du moins cc qui rcssort dc la documcntation dis poniblc. Lcs grands monastrcs athonitcs, tcls quc Chilandar qui jouissait du troisimc ou quatrimc rang dans la hirarchic athonitc , avaicnt dc nom brcuscs dpcndanccs sous lormcs dc ccllulcs, skites ct autrcs crmitagcs ar bitrant dcs communauts monacalcs plus ou moins importantcs.
Ccrtaincs dc ccs communauts acquircnt, cllcs aussi, lc privilgc dunc aidc princirc dircctc. Parmi ccllcs dpcndant dc Chilandar, cc lut lc cas dc lcrmitagc dc Saint Sava a Karys, sigc du Protaton, ct donc cn cc scns capitalc dc la Saintc Montagnc.
Jean Castriot et la Tour albanaise Arbanaki pirg, tr. Arnvud birg. Lautrc dpcndancc dc Chilandar jouissant unc lavcur similairc tait lcrmitagc intitul la Tour albanaisc rbanaki pirg.
Situc a quclqucs kilomtrcs dc distancc dc Chilandar, cn dircction du sudoucst, cct crmitagc sc trouvc sur unc hautcur avcc vuc sur lc pc.
Pctkovi, Arbanaki pirg u Hilandaru , rhi. Foti, S. Cct achat dc droit viagcr cst lait au nom dc Jcan Castriot ct dc scs quatrc ls : Stania, Rcpo, Constantin ct Gcorgcs.
Si Rcpo tcrmina sa vic a Chilandar, vraiscmblablcmcnt cn tant quc lac, cc quc lc droit viagcr dadelfaton pcr mcttait, cn cct, son prc Jcan Castriot scmblc bicn avoir achcv sa vic a la Tour albanaisc ou a Chilandar, cn tant quc moinc.
Actcs slavcs dc Chilandar ,! Cc tcrmc belfton dsignc unc rcntc viagrc, pour unc ou plusicurs pcrsonncs, concd notammcnt a ccux qui laisaicnt un don lon cicr, ou pcuniairc, au monastrc.
Conlronts la montc dcs dangcrs lis a la conquctc ottomanc, bicn dcs lamillcs princircs ct scigncurialcs dcvaicnt ainsi rccourir a lacqui sition dc cc droit viagcr dcstin a lcur assurcr unc rctraitc scuris a lcart dcs tumultcs tcmporcls.
Moin, M. Purkovi, Hilandarski igumani srednjeg. Sprcmi, Despot Djuradj Branko. Gruji, Svctogorski azili za srpskc vladaocc i vlastclu poslc Kosovskc bitkc , Glasnik Skopskog naunog drut.
Lc lait cst quc lacquisition dun viagcr sous ccttc lormc dadclphata comprcnait aussi lc droit a un scr vicc rcligicux cn lavcur dcs souscriptcurs dc cct cngagcmcnt.
Cc qui cx pliqucrait la mmoirc sculairc dcs scigncurs albanais sous lormc dc nom donn a lhcrmitagc, la Tour albanaisc. La Tour albanaisc y cst rcprscntc avcc son glisc, sa tour lortic, scs btimcnts adjaccnts ct lcnccintc qui lcs cntourait.
Cc qui corrcspond a la zonc o sc situc la Tour albanaisc. Ncnadovi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi , Hilandarski. Tomi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi , Hilandarski.
X stolca , Zbornik. UDC ,c. Kalokyris, Byzantina ekklhsai tv I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav ekklhsai tv I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav kklhsai tv I.
Lc symbolc ncst pas tudi sparmcnt, commc ccst lc cas avcc lc sujct du tabcrnaclc, 8 du buisson ardcnt,. Les Balkans! GligorijcviMaksimovi, Skinija u canima, porcklo i razvoj ikonogralskc tcmc , dans Deani et l rt by.
Harris, Mary in thc 8urning 8ush , Journal of! Radovanovi, Gcdconovo runo u srpskom srcdnjovckovnom slikarstvu , dans Ikonografska istrai.
Radoji, pizoda o 8ogoro diciGori u Tcodosijcvom ivotu sv. Savc i njcna vcza sa slikarstvom X!!! Pani ct G. Milanovi, Proroci su tc nagovcstili u Pci , dans Lrche.
Ccst toi, qui cst lurnc dor, lc candlabrc dc la tablc, lc ra mcau dAron avaicnt curis Hbr. La mannc dlicicusc ct clcstc, lc nom innom qui cst au dcssus dc tout nom.
Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum no. Zato tcbc 8ogorodicu u poznanju slavci pobono vcliamo. Raduj sc jcvo proroka propovcd kojom zasja manuil.
Sotiriou, Eknev tv monv Sin! Talbot Ricc, Icons. Par contrc, dans lcs rccucils musicaux, lcs pandekta, on lc trouvc dans un manuscrit du X!
Lazarcv, Storia della pittura bi. Alcxiou, Odhgv Istor. Qmata rcailogav ka tcnhv Athncs, , , g. Jakovljcvi dans Klhronoma X!
Lc nombrc dcs pro phtcs varic, quoi quc lc manucl dc pcinturc cn prcscrit douzc. La il symbolisc par lc numro scpt lcs phnomncs tcmporcls sclon lcs commcntaircs dc Todorc dc Mopsucstia.
Coislin :, lol. Xyngopoulos, Moyseon Mpenkh. Sinai Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Catherine, d. Volska, La Topographic Chrticnnc dc Cosmas!
Sur Homlic dc Grgoirc dc Nazianzc, voir : G. Galavaris, Te Illustrations of the Liturgical Homilies of Gregory Na.
Lcxcmplc lc plus lascinant sc trouvc dans lc Physiologuc dc Smyrnc lol. Linscription qui suit ccttc miniaturc nc laissc aucunc placc au doutc sur lc scns dc limagc : ptkaylo Lycna g.
Ccst lApocalypsc qui mct prs du trnc du Scigncur, commc scpt csprits dc icu. Ccst lc candlabrc cn or qui, daprs lintcrprtation dc St Clmcnt dAlcxandric, gurc lcs scpt astrcs ct lcs scpt gliscs.
Pctkovi, Manastir S.. Trojice kod Plje. Gligorijcvi Maksimovi, Skinija u canima , Pl. Strzygowski, cr 8ildcrkrcis dcs gricchischcn Physiologus , By.
Sur lAncicn dcs Jours:! Apostola u Pci , dans Ikonografska istrai. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic vasc ct portant scpt lampcs avcc scpt conduits pour lcs lampcs qui sont au sommct du chandclicr Plus loin langc cxpliquc a Zacharic quc ccs scpt sont lcs ycux dc ltcrncl qui parcourcnt toutc la tcrrc.
La posic liturgiquc cst prcsquc inpuisablc sur lc sujct dc la Tcoto kos Lychnia. Par un choix asscz rcstrcint jc vais tchcr dc traccr unc csquissc dc son portrait vu lcs hymnographcs byzantins, prscnts dans lcs Mnncs, Triodion, Pcntikostarion, Totokarion ct ktoichos cn autant quc lro logion.
Ainsi, cllc cst lc candlabrc lumincux dc lillustrc souvcrainc avcc plus dclat quc lc solcil, : tout brillant dor par lc Solcil dc la gloirc.
Mcrccnicr, La prire des eglises de rite by. Mcmc dans la ormition a St Nagoriino X! Radoji, U. Mai, Spicilegium Fomanum! Salzcr, Die Sinnbilder und Bei.
Pitra, nalecta Spicilegio Solesmensi parata! Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic appcllc Maric la portc dc linacccssiblc lumirc,.
Salzcr, Die Sinnbilder,. Aussi, ccst un candlabrc dc la lumirc raisonnablc, 6 intclligiblc commc a prdit lc prophtc.
Euchologion, :, o. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic Fig. Patmos, Lcs prophtcs tont annoncc Miniaturc dc Cosmas!
Athncs, colc dcs 8caux Arts Lcs lctcs marialcs conccrnant lincarnation du Christ symbolc prophtiquc Fig. At thc cnd ol thc cightccnth ccntury approxi matcly thc samc numbcr ol Scrbs, 6oo,ooo, livcd in cach ol thc two statcs.
Namcly, always opting lor thc Christian sidc, scvcral hundrcd thousand Scrbs had movcd in mass migrations to Austria and Hungary in thc wakc ol TurkishAustrian wars at thc cnd ol thc scvcntccnth and during thc cigh tccnth ccntury.
Ncithcr thc Scrbs nor othcr Christians in thc Pashalik ol 8clgradc wcrc in a position to dcvclop national culturc. Tcrc wcrc hardly any litcratc pcrsons, with thc cxccption ol lcw pricsts, thcmsclvcs litcratc at a prctty basic lcvcl.
Mcdicval churchcs wcrc abandoncd or dcrclict, and thc construction ol ncw oncs was prohibitcd. Tcy dicrcd lrom othcr citizcns in bcing rthodox Christian and in using Cyrillic script.
Tc Scrbs cnjoycd rcligious autonomy through thc Mctropolitanatc ol Karlovci. Howcvcr, sincc thcy had no rcligious books ol thcir own, thcy had to usc Russian oncs.
As a rcsult, thc Scrbian cultural clitc adoptcd thc Russian rcccnsion ol ld Church Slavonic as thcir own. Gavrilovi, Littraturc pdagogiquc lranaisc chcz lcs Scrbcs a lpo Littraturc pdagogiquc lranaisc chcz lcs Scrbcs a lpo quc dcs Lumircs in Les relations entre la France et les pays yougosla.
Although translatcd rclativcly rarcly, thc Frcnch philosophcrs wcrc oltcn quotcd and considcrably writtcn about. As a rcsult ol thcir nccds as a pcoplc dcprivcd ol thcir rcligious and national rights and quitc poorly cducatcd, thc Scrbs optcd lor thc idcas ol thc nlightcnmcnt.
Trough Jo scphinism thcy wcrc also introduccd to othcr idcas ol thc uropcan n lightcnmcnt. From Rousscaus Social Contract thcy took scctions about political institutions.
Rcscarch shows that Sava Tckclija was thc rst Scrb to discuss thc Frcnch philosophcrs, hc had all thcir books in his library and, in his doctoral thcsis De causa et ne ci.
Mcdakovi, as his torischc 8cwusscin bci dcn Scrbcn zur Zcit dcr Kaiscrin Maria Tcrcsia in in in Osterreich im Europa der ufklarung, vol.
Pavlovi, U d. Francusko-srpske kulturne i knjie. Kosti, Pr. Scc Lj. At thc samc asscmbly, Jakov Scanac protcstcd against thc privilcgcs cnjoycd by thc nobility, and at his proposal a commission was appointcd with thc task ol nding possiblc ways to livc in libcrty.
His guiding idca was thc rulc ol thc pcoplc, sovcrcignty and individual lib crtics. His paraphrasc ol Rousscau bcttcr not to livc than to livc in slavcry, is lollowcd by thc stand that common will rathcr than thc will ol onc man should bc thc loundation ol law.
Hc thought that lrccdom is whcrc laws arc wcll workcd out and whcrc thosc in powcr abidc by thcm. His stand on law lulncss is bcst cxprcsscd by a comparison bctwccn statc and individual law is lor a statc what lood, air and housing is lor a man.
Maintaining that cvcry citizcns pcrsonal happincss and wcllbcing dcpcndcd on laws, hc rcjcctcd any scllwill and advocatcd a lcgislation that would cnsurc thc natural right to cquality and lrccdom, which was inspircd by thc Declaration of the Fights of Man and the Citi.
Tc Frcnch philosophcrs tcndcncy to rcly on knowlcdgc and scicncc lor libcrating thc minds and rcducing thc impact ol thc church was not. Quotcd lrom Kosti, Nckoliko idcjnih odraza,.
Popovi, Srbi u! Grujovis notion ol natural law in Pola. Namcly, at thc timc thc church was thc most important custodian ol national consciousncss, as cvidcnccd by thc statc mcnt that thc words church, school and litcraturc stand lor thc salva tion ol thc soul and pcoplc in this world and thc ncxt.
Tc cnlightcncd strcam grad ually prcvailcd ovcr thc conscrvativc, mostly owing to ositcj bradovi. Tis scriously acctcd productivity, particularly in agriculturc.
Although Scrbs tcndcd to pcrccivc somc ol thcsc idcas as an attack on thc rthodox Church, thc idcas ol nlightcnmcnt madc it casicr lor thc numbcr ol holi days to bc rcduccd.
Hc also wrotc about hcalth hazards ol cxccssivc lasting at thc timc, lasting was prcscribcd lor :oo days a ycar and, inspircd by thc physiocratic thcorics, about thc nccd to boost agricultural production.
Anothcr signicant Scrbian cducator, Zaharijc rlclin, saw his mission not only in litcraturc but also in thc promotion ol thc cducation ol thc pcoplc.
His principal stand was that thcrc could bc no lrccdom without cconomic 8 Quotcd in S. X vcka in Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. Scrbian cducators notion ol cducation was a broad onc, and thcy, much likc thc cncyclopacdists, wcrc crcativc in scvcral clds ol culturc or scicncc.
Living undcr lorcign rulc, thcy did lag bchind uropc, but within thcsc lcw dccadcs thcy wrotc somc books ol paramount importancc lor thc dcvclopmcnt ol national culturc.
Jovan Raji authorcd thc rst history ol thc Scrbian pcoplc Istorija ra. Atanasijc Stojkovi, with Ph..
Adjusting his stylc to thc lcvcl ol his rcadcrs cducation, hc makcs usc ol intcrcsting storics to cxplain natural phcnom cna.
Although thc rst Scrbian laws wcrc bascd on Austrian modications ol Frcnch laws, dircct Frcnch inucnccs may bc dctcctcd as wcll.
Tus, thc rst Scrbian cxpcrt in civil law Jovan Hadi acccptcd Montcsquicus stand that thc lawmakcr must takc into account thc placc and timc to which a law applics.
Tc rst tcxtbook on natural law, writtcn by thc prolcssor ol thc 8clgradc Lyccum Jovan Stcrija Popovi, bcttcr known and still highly rcspcctcd as a playwright, is also lull ol nlightcnmcnt idcas.
His undcr standing ol thc lrccdom ol thought, his vicw on thc limits ol statc powcr, thc rcsponsibility ol cmployccs, thc right ol dclcncc, intcrnational rclations, parcntal powcr, is notablc.
Pcji, Jugoslo. Karanovich, Te De. Heloise and mile, thc lormcr as a story about human rights, passion and cmotions, and thc lattcr as a modcl lor modcrn cducation.
Tis is thc gist ol advicc a studcnt givcs to thc mcdicval Scrbian cmpcror uan in an imaginary convcrsation, in which thc principlc ol cquality bclorc thc law is rcqucstcd lor thc nobility and thc common pcoplc alikc.
Fernando and Jarika, uscs an nlightcnmcnt stcrcotypc contrasting thc purity and naturalncss ol savagcs with thc corruptncss ol city pcoplc.
Although most ol his plays wcrc a lar cry lrom authcntic crcations, thcy had signicant impact on thc audicncc in thcir timc.
Sccularization madc itscll lclt in cightccnthccntury art. Portraits ol saints and rulcrs assumcd ncw, laicizcd lorms. His work is a symbiosis ol litcraturc and philosophy, and his goal to tcach thc Scrbian pcoplc to think lrccly and to adopt thc rcsults ol contcmporary scicncc.
Anticlcricalism and antitraditionalism, cthic and scicntic lcssons charactcrizc his works. Although borrowcd lrom thc cultural tradition ol thc nlightcnmcnt, his idcas also containcd Scrbian cultural traditions.
His utobiography is a typical pcdagogic novcl ol thc agc ol nlightcnmcnt in that it dcscribcs thc lutility ol his ycars spcnt in a monastcry and thc bcncts ol his commit mcnt to scicncc.
Although bclow thc Frcnch modcls in quality, it was with this rst Scrbian cducator that modcrn Scrbian culturc and its intcgration into thc uropcan cultural spacc bcgan.
Although thc Scrbs did not draw on thc sourccs ol thc nlightcn mcnt dircctly, thcy did not rcmain altogcthcr outsidc this uropcan movc mcnt.
Somctimcs thcy took lrom it what thcy nccdcd lor thcir spccic na tional dcvclopmcnt, and somctimcs simply borrowcd topics cpigonically, lollowing thc nlightcnmcnt modcls and thcir Austrian supportcrs.
Tis is particularly noticcablc in litcraturc, with thcmcs oltcn copicd lrom othcr litcraturcs, which is typical ol an cmcrging culturc such as Scrbian was at thc timc.
Pcrhaps thc most striking among many cxamplcs was thc acccp tancc ol Rousscaus vicw ol thc rclationship bctwccn natural and urban man and his sympathy lor thc lormcr.
Albandar J. Destructive periodontal disease in adults 30 years of age ami older in the United States. Albandar, J. Brunellc, A. Kingman HI. Periodontal Al-Rawi 2.
Al-Rawi, A. AI-Hszawi, T. Al-Chalabi tt Brit J. M, Anderson, P, M. Anderson Q. Pathologic evaluation of disc dys function and osseous abnormalities of the TMJ IQ, Anderson, R, KaCzberg tf J, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Orofoc -Pain, , - Vol.
Aquilino S. Malteson, G. I P Appelgren, A. Appetgren, N. Youstf, S. Arterial manifestations in heritable disoders of connective tissue t C.
Beylot, M- S. Doutre, M. Busquct I Rcveue de Medicine Inlemc Bailey J. ElectromiograjAie silent periods and parameters : Quantitative measures of tempofomandiMare joint dysfunction f J.
Bailey, W. Baldioccda F. Baldioccda, A. A Bidd Hi- ofCraoiommdibdar Disorders Facial Oral Pain.
Barghi N. Prosthet- Dan. Barkhof, M. Multiple Sclerosis J. Stewart U J. Dent Bates, C- Stewart, W Atkinson U J.
Amcr dent. Beatrice M. Vcnical facial pattern and orthodontic stability: p. II: Facial axis changes and stability t M.
Beatrice, M. Woods It Ausi Orthod. J Vol. I6 3 ,-P Becker JM. Occlusion as a causative factor in TMD.
Dent J. Bell W. Chamey, DA. Bmce HI. Bellamy A. Derivation of gangltoside-spcctfk T cell lines of suppressor or helper phenotypc from cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients t A S.
Bellamy, A. Davison, M FeJdman t! II -P, Benvauer W. Bharau S. Heart I. Bioroechanical study of temporomandibular joint on its form mod-piniction.
Macda, M. Sogo, S. Tsuwurai, M. Okado, T. Nokobi H I. Osako Liniv Dent Sch. Bimbaum G. Kotilinek, L. Albrechl ft Ann Neurol, Vol, Biikert Si Disch.
Zah-narztl , - Vol. Blaschke D. Dent- Ass. Blaustein D. Blaustem li Oral Surg, Oral Med. Oral Pathol Blocquel H.
Euclid and Pythogorus in the 21st century. Blocquel H Bull Group Int. Rech- Set. Odontol Bloom B. P, Orthodontic treatment of overbite by the Tip Edge technique in conjunction with on anterior bile elevator, p.
Orthodontic treatment of overbite with an appliance for raising the anterior vertical dimension: p. J Bolendcr U Orlhod. BoiH Z.
Epidemiology and natural progression of articular tcm-poromandibularc disorders IZ. Q, Bout, L. Oral Pathol. RoMiHjuet A. Bosamquet, J.
Jshimary, A. Goss H Int. Bradley P. P, Bradley If Brit- J- Oral Maxillofacials Surgery. Bradley W. Bradley H Mogn Rcson, Q. Brand J. W The effect of TMJ internal derangement and degenerative join!
Braun, M. Martin Pusic. Tim Linsbichler. Stephan Salger. Merveille Biankadi. Richard Neudecker. Johann Ngounou Djayo. Matthew Durrans. Ahanna Agbowo.
Marco Mannhardt. Lorenz Knöferl. Markus Ziereis. Aaron Berzel. Noel Niemann. Efkan Bekiroglu. Eric Weeger. Nico Karger.
Timo Gebhart. Hendrik Bonmann. Herbert Paul. Prince Osei Owusu. Simon Seferings. Benjamin Kindsvater. Felix Weber. Tim Rieder. Anton Donkor. Onur Ünlücifci.
Dominik Martinovic. Marcel Costly. Hamza Saghiri. Joseph Boyamba. Anthony Roczen. Gillian Jurcher. Manfred Osei Kwadwo. Osei Kwadwo. Silas Schwarz. Jonas Weik.
Michael Schultz. Maurice Deville. Valmir Sulejmani. Florian Flick. Kevin Koffi. Mete Celik. Raffael Korte. Miro Varvodic. Mounir Bouziane.
Alexander Winkler. Nicolas Sessa. Kenny Prince Redondo. Adam Hlousek. Marlon Ritter. Mohamed Morabet. Elija Wohlgemuth. Tom Fladung.
Matheo Raab. Jonas Weyand. Elias Huth. Florian Pick. Christian Kühlwetter. Timmy Thiele. Christoph Hemlein. Gino Fechner. Theodor Bergmann.
Manfred Starke. Antonio Jonjic. Jan-Ole Sievers. Andre Hainault. Alexander Nandzik. Julien Richter. Patrick Hasenhüttl. Robert Müller.
Lino Volkmer. Jannis Turtschan. Boipelo Mashigo. Nicolaj Madsen. Niclas Anspach. Christoph Ehlich. Stephan Mensah. Alexander Kaltner.
Lucas Markert. Florian Dietz. Maximilian Rossmann. Sebastian Mielitz. Lucas Cueto. Luca Stellwagen. Enes Tubluk. Marcel Risse. Yannik Bangsow. Alexander Höck.
Steffen Lang. Mark Depta. Sven Kreyer. Richmond Tachie. Mart Ristl. Sebastian Patzler. Jan-Lukas Funke. Sascha Eichmeier.
Tobias Willers. Lars Dietz. Jonas Carls. KFC Uerdingen Muhammed Kiprit. Hidde Jurjus. Mike Feigenspan.
Heinz Mörschel. Kolja Pusch. Peter van Ooijen. Dave Gnaase. Hans Anapak. Fridolin Wagner. Stefan Velkov. Leon Schneider.
Gustav Marcussen. Julius Paris. Patrick Göbel. Tom Boere. Robin Udegbe. Selim Gündüz. Necirwan Khalil Mohammad.
Khalil Mohammad. Patrick Pflücke. Dennis Daube. Roberto Rodriguez. Adam Matuszczyk. Hakim Guenouche. Philipp Bachmeier. Alexander Bittroff.
Manuel Konrad. Jean Manuel Mbom. Boubacar Barry. Adrian Malachowski. Raphael Obermair. Korbinian Burger. Nico Mai. Henry Rorig. Sebastian Jakubiak.
Andreas Müller. Maximilian Franzke. Thore Jacobsen. Timon Weiner. Florian Kath. Luka Sliskovic. Tom Schlitter. Julian Weigel.
Marius Bülter. Pascal Schmedemann. Marvin Temp. Alexander Brunst. Patrick Möschl. Charles Elie Laprevotte. Mario Kvesic.
Tarek Chahed. Fabian Menig. Julian-Maurice Derstroff. Sven Müller. Michael Eberwein. Laurenz Dehl. Stipe Vucur. Ishmael Schubert-Abubakari.
Mathias Fetsch. Nick Galle. Björn Jopek. The results depend critically on the cross sections in question, for which the earlier work of Elwert 4 was used.
The time scale in which stationary conditions are approximately reached is of the order of a fraction of a millisecond for this temperature and an electron density of cm"3, but much shorter for higher temperatures.
The radiative energy losses by impurities of heavy elements in that temperature range are due mainly to the excitation of discrete levels.
The results of the work of Knorr 5 are compatible with the more recent experiments with ZETA 7 if it is assumed that the electron temperature is much lower than the value of some K which apparently pertains to the ions.
The radiation losses due to impurities were found to be relatively large in the temperature range K even for small amounts of heavier elements.
The work on the equilibrium of dissociation and ionization and the energy losses of a high temperature discharge in pure hydrogen, begun by Schmidt and Stodiek, has been extended by Schmidt.
It is found that there are deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium, since the photo processes are not important because of the small optical thickness of a typical gas discharge.
Molecular recombination on the walls and the cooling of the neutral particles by impacts with the walls reinforce these deviations.
The interactions of the charged particles with the wall, which might be important under certain conditions, have not been included in this discussion because of the assumption of strong magnetic fields.
The losses of energy by radiation and by the transport of the kinetic energy of neutral particles to the walls due to recombination and charge exchange have been estimated.
The maximum losses occur around 15,K. Methods of Heating. Three methods have been studied in some detail: Joule heating by means of azimuthal currents induced in the plasma ring; high frequency radiation, in particular near the eigenfrequencies of the plasma; and, finally, forced oscillations of the magnetic field.
The possibilities of the mechanism first mentioned have been discussed by Grossmann-Doerth,9 who. Heating by high frequency radiation, and in particular, the dependence of the refractive index on the parameters involved, has been investigated by Krper.
The third mechanism was recognized to be particularly effective if the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field is near to or larger than the collision frequency of the ions.
This heating effect is due to the constancy of the magnetic moment between collisions and to the redistribution of the energy by collisions "gyro-relaxation" ;11 it has been studied in some detail by numerical integrations,12 in which attrition was paid also to the energy losses of electrons.
The equations for gyro-relaxation given by Schlter have been integrated by Schmidt12 for a simple model taking into account the free-free radiation of the electrons.
Periodic variations of the magnetic field with a frequency of the order of the ion collision frequency lead to an increase of the temperature with the two-thirds power of the time.
Finally, one can reach temperatures of the order of K asymptotically if the amplitudes are large enough. Here the time scale for the increase is somewhat larger than the collision time of the final state.
Krper 13 has investigated the problem of heating by high frequency radiation in more detail. From the behavior of the refractive index it follows that one can use frequencies below the geometric mean of the gyro-frequency of the ions and the electrons.
The efficiency depends very critically on the phase of the oscillations of the plasma at the surface. Since the wave-length in the plasma is very small compared to the linear dimensions of a normal plasma cylinder, a small variation of the radius, of the frequency, or of the physical parameters will change the phase drastically.
Thus, averages over all phases have to be taken into account. The input impedance of the heating coils varies in the same manner with the physical parameters and therefore it is not possible to use the customary high frequency methods for matching the generator to the coil.
Variational methods are to be used to find the optimum matching. Configurations in Mag neto hydrostatic Equilibrium.
The aim of these investigations is to find the properties of exact solutions, of appropriate general character, of the equation of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.
This equation expresses the exact balance of the gas pressure gradient or pressure difference by the magnetic volume or surface force given by the vector product of the electric current density and the magnetic field intensity.
The majority of those investigations pertain to the case of surface currents and to ring-shaped toroidal configurations of the plasma surrounded by a vacuum.
The special case of axial symmetry and circular cross section was discussed with potential theory methods in the properties of the solution with ex-.
Jrgens 15 extended the analysis to the more general case of non-circular meridianal cross section, using a stream function related to the magnetic flux, and indicated the locations of the singularities, outside the torus, which correspond to electric currents in exterior conductors.
Kippenhahn 16 established necessary and sufficient differential geometrical conditions for the surface of a plasma which must be fulfilled if the plasma is to be in equilibrium with a surrounding magnetic vacuum field and discussed, in particular, the case of azimuthdependent circular cross sections and currents spiralling around the torus surface.
In all these cases it was found that a component of the electric current parallel to the generating circle is necessary for equilibrium. An attempt, made by Meyer and Schmidt,17 to prove this property to be true for still more general cases, revealed, however, that, in fact, solutions can be constructed, of torus-like geometry but with neither axial symmetry nor circular cross section, which are characterized by electric currents flowing everywhere with equal surface density along closed lines of meridianal character, but not in meridianal planes.
The cross section appears to have at least two maxima along the generating circle. If there are only a few maxima, the relative variation of the cross section along the generating circle appears to be fairly large; if, in contrast, there are many extrema, the surface must have a rippled structure at least on the " inner " side as seen from the centre of the aperture of the torus.
The magnetic lines of force, in this case, are everywhere perpendicular to the current if there is no magnetic field in the plasma.
Axially symmetric solutions with volume currents have also been considered, using the stream-function method. In addition to the analytic treatment by means of a special coordinate system, a simple model of the surface currents andfieldshas been constructed, using paper strips of suitable shapes, folded and joined together in a special way; this model is a true analogue to the physical situation for the case of vanishing magnetic field in the plasma, and it allows one to survey existing solutions and their general properties rather easily.
Stability Problems. In , general conditions for the stability of hydromagnetic configurations were investigated in Gttingen, by Hain, Lst and Schlter,20 on lines.
For the special case of cylindrical symmetry the stability of certain specific configurations has been treated by Hain et al. More general cases for the current distributions and for the coaxial magnetic field are still being investigated.
Since the emphasis in this work is to compare the properties of various current distributions, no regard is being taken of the possible stabilizing influence of external conductors.
The stability of a linear discharge in an exterior longitudinal magnetic field with surface currents has been investigated theoretically by Jordan22 in Aachen.
Of the work done by Hain, Lst and de Vries,21 a first paper by Hain and Lst 23 has been completed which contains the discussion of the more special case.
To study the problem of the so-called exchange stability, Meyer 24 has extended an investigation by Kruskal and Schwarzschild 34 in such a manner that a plasma with gravity and horizontal magnetic field is supported by a vacuum magnetic field, which is also horizontal but is skew to the inner one.
With the approximation used by Kruskal and Schwarzschild the unstable perturbations found by them can be stabilized.
The stabilization depends on the angle between the two fields and on their relative strengths. The calculations are extended to the case of large wave-length.
It is shown that here unstable perturbations with very large wave-length exist for arbitrary angles and strengths of the magnetic field.
Particle Losses by Drift Motions. Since the macroscopic equations of plasma physics give information only on the net balance of mass, momentum and energy, their discussion must be supplemented by studying, from the microscopic point of view, the motion and, in particular, the containment of individual charged particles in suitable electromagnetic fields.
This can be done with the help of methods analogous to those developed earlier in connection with the theory of aurorae and of cosmic radiation.
For axially symmetric magnetic fields, Lst and Schlter25 derived an integral for the azimuthal component of the velocity which shows that this component depends only on the meridianal component of the magnetic field.
It may be seen, in addition, that it is not affected by a meridianal electric field as produced, e. Also, the influence of an azimuthal electric field as, e.
This leads by the energy integral to the existence of so-called forbidden regions which show that all particles within a certain range of initial conditions can, indeed, be contained in suchfieldswith a suitable.
For the simplest cases of toroidal symmetry, the structure of the forbidden regions and the geometrical properties of a number of individual trajectories have been studied by Fisser and Kippenhahn.
The magnitude of this drift has been calculated using the approximation method of Alfvn and by numerical solutions of the equations of motion. A comparison of the results indicates the range of validity of the approximation.
The constancy " adiabatic invariance " of the magnetic moment M or of the angular momentum of the gyrating motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field has been the subject of an investigation of Hertweck and Schlter,28 who established that, for a homogeneous field varying in time, the relative variation of M goes to zero at least exponentially with the rate of change of the magnetic field strength.
Fisser and Kippenhahn 26 have developed methods by which the properties of given trajectories in relation to the geometry of the allowed and the forbidden regions can be surveyed easily.
These methods can also be used to discuss problems of particle loss. The authors have applied these methods to the special case of the magnetic field of an ideal circular ring current.
Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves. In connection with the theory of controlled fusion, as well as in that of the acceleration of cosmic rays in cosmic magneticfields,the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves, in particular their thickness as compared to the kinetic mean path and the gyro-radius, is of importance.
For this reason, the special case of a stationary plane wave, propagating in the absence of collisions with unchanging form and speed perpendicular to a magnetic field, in a completely ionized gas plasma of " zero " temperature, has been investigated rigorously by Davis, Lst and Schlter.
The macroscopic equations for this case are identical with the microscopic ones and both ions and electrons have the same velocity U x and the same particle flux F in the direction of propagation x.
If one includes in the equations of motion the terms arising from the inertia of the current-carrying particles, one finds that B x is determined by the second order differential equation of a one-dimensional,.
Thus, the oscillatory character of the solutions is obvious, and the wave-length turns out to be of the order of the geometric mean of the gyro-radii of the ions and the electrons when moving with the velocity of the wave.
Numerical integration of the differential equation has been carried out for a systematic array of values of the parameters.
For the limiting case of an oscillatory wave train when the frequency goes to zero, one gets solitary waves with Mach numbers between 1 and 2.
In the complete absence of collisions, all particle trajectories are symmetrical about their extrema and no stationary shock waves can be found.
But if a few collisions are admitted, both the trajectories and the variation of with x become asymmetrical. It appears that a shock will start with a wave that is almost a solitary wave followed by some kind of wave train, and that after the particles have travelled a distance of the order of a mean-free path there will be a fairly smooth flow of gas of higher temperature.
Thus the total shock thickness will be of the order of a few mean-free paths while its detailed structure should be related to the waves found here.
In the limit in which the time between collisions goes to infinity, the only solutions connecting regions of different properties must be non-stationary solutions; thus the stationary waves treated in this work are completely inadequate for the discussion of such cases.
The case of non-zero temperature, both with isotropic and non-isotropic pressure in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, has been studied by the same authors and Hain,32 using mainly the macro1J2.
For the first case, the results do not seem to differ essentially from those obtained for the case of zero pressure.
The second case is still being studied; for this, new equations have been derived by discussing suitable moments of the Boltzmann equation.
The investigations of Davis, Hain, Lst and Schluter 33 on the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves with non-zero pressure isotropic perpendicular but not parallel to the magnetic field have been completed.
The results are very similar to the case of zero pressure. To get shock waves, dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity, heat conduction, electrical resistivity and gyro-relaxation were taken into account.
A discussion showed that the last two are the most important mechanisms. The dissipation has the consequence that a solitary wave, which one obtains under certain initial conditions and which is symmetrical without dissipation, is somewhat asymmetrical.
This solitary wave is followed by a train of waves with decreasing amplitude until finally the homogeneous subsonic solution is reached.
The whole thickness of this region will be of the order of the mean-free path and may be very large compared to the thickness of the solitary wave.
That concludes my very incomplete and brief survey of the work that has been done, mainly in the last two years, in the Federal Republic of Germany.
You will have noticed that hitherto there has been very much duplication of effort, but I should like to say that I share very much the satisfaction that has been expressed by earlier speakers that now the period of duplication and non-communication has apparently come to an end and that international cooperation gives better promise for the future of physics.
Funfer, H Herold, G. Lehner, H Tuczek and C. Andelfinger, Neutronenemission stromstarker DeutenumEntladungen, Z Naturforsch.
L Biermann and A. Schluter, Zur Thorie quasistationarer thermonuklearer Prozesse, Z. Biermann, ber den Mechanismus der Ionisation in der Sonnenkorona , Naturwiss.
Elwert, ber die Ionisations- und Rekombmationsprozesse in einem Plasma und die Ionisations formel der Sonnenkorona, Z. Naturforsch, 7a, Knorr, ber den Ionisationszustand und die Ausstrahlung von Fremdgasen eines Wasserstoff-Plasmas, to appear in Z.
Schmidt and W. Stodiek, to appear in Z. Boose et al, Nature, , Schmidt, to appear m Z. Grossmann-Doerth, personal communication.
Korper, Schwingung eines Plasmazyhnders in einem ausseren Magnetfeld, Z. Naturforsch, 12a, Schluter, Der Gyro-Relaxahons-Effekt, Z. Naturforsch , 72a, Korper, to appear in Z.
Biermann, K. Ham, K. Jorgens and R. Lust, Axialsymmetnsche Losungen der magnetohydrostatischen Gleichung mit Oberflachenstromen, Z.
Jorgens, Axialsymmetnsche Losungen der magnetohydrostatischen Gleichung mit Oberflachenstromen II, to appear in Z.
Kippenhahn, Plasma-Konflguralionen mit Oberflachenstromen, die von einem Magnetfeld im Gleichgewicht gehalten werden, to appear in Z Naturforsch.
Meyer and H. Schmidt, Torusartige Plasmakonfigurahonen ohne Gesamtstrom durch ihren Querschnitt im Gleichgewicht mit einem Magnerfeld, Z.
Naturforsch , in press. Lust and A. Schluter, Axialsymmetnsche magnetohydrodynamische Gleichgewichtshonflguralionen, Z. Step 1: Get real with yourself.
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